The History of Conflict Between Israel and Palestinian Militants in Gaza

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The History of Conflict Between Israel and Palestinian Militants in Gaza
Decades-Long Tensions Flare: Israel and Palestinian Militants in Gaza Engage in Deadliest Conflict in 50 Years

Deadliest Clash in Half a Century: Israel and Hamas Erupt in All-out War

In the most recent escalation of a conflict that has raged on for over 70 years, Israel and Hamas, the Palestinian militant group ruling the Gaza Strip, have entered into one of the deadliest confrontations since their longstanding dispute began. This latest bout of violence has claimed the lives of more than 2,000 individuals from both sides. The United Nations Agency for Palestinian Refugees reports that over a quarter of a million people in Gaza have been displaced from their homes.

Carey Fruitman spent Saturday morning in and out of the bomb shelter in his home in Rishon LeZion, Israel, following Hamas’s surprise attack. Fruitman, who has lived in Israel for the past 30 years, says rocket strikes are nothing new but Saturday’s attacks are unprecedented.

The Spark of Current Tensions

Early Saturday, Hamas shocked the world by launching a surprise attack on Israel, an action that Israel has declared as a declaration of war. This unexpected assault by Hamas is said to be a response to the deteriorating conditions Palestinians experience under Israeli occupation.

Hamas, during negotiations involving Qatar, Egypt, and the UN, has consistently pressed for concessions from Israel. The group seeks an end to the 16-year blockade on the Gaza Strip, hoping to stave off an intensifying financial crisis.

Notably, officials from Hamas have cited disputes concerning the Al-Aqsa mosque site in Jerusalem—a sacred location for both Jews and Muslims—as a significant point of contention. Similar disagreements in the past have led to outbreaks of violence, such as the 11-day war in 2021.

The Saturday assault resulted in the death of over 1,200 Israelis, with Hamas militants also taking numerous hostages. This move by Hamas might further complicate Israel’s course of action. As casualties rise, over 2,700 people have been reported wounded, including 155 soldiers.

In response to Hamas’ actions, Israel declared war on Sunday and proposed a complete siege on the Gaza Strip. This entails cutting off essential supplies, including food, water, and electricity, to what is one of the world’s most densely populated areas. Anticipating a potential ground offensive, Israeli warplanes bombarded Gaza repeatedly.

The Significance of Gaza in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

In the wake of the 1948 war, a substantial number of Palestinians either fled or were expelled from what is now known as Israel, ultimately settling in Gaza, which was then under Egyptian control. Fast forward to the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, and Israel seized control of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem—areas the Palestinians hope to consolidate into a single state.

The emergence of Hamas can be traced back to 1987 during the first Palestinian intifada, or uprising, which commenced in Gaza. The Oslo peace process of the 1990s, starting with dialogues between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, led to the establishment of the Palestinian Authority and granted it limited self-rule in Gaza and sections of the West Bank.

A parade for the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Hamas’s militant arm, is held in Gaza. Ashraf Amra/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Gaza’s Current Leadership and Struggles

The Gaza Strip is presently governed by Hamas, a Palestinian militant group. Since their electoral victory in 2006, they have maintained control of this territory. Following Hamas’ takeover, both Israel and Egypt instituted a blockade on Gaza. With Israel controlling many of Gaza’s vital systems, they argue that this blockade is essential to prevent militant groups like Hamas from importing weapons. However, rights groups counter this by labeling the blockade as collective punishment, which is forbidden by international law.

This blockade, combined with internal mismanagement and ongoing conflicts between Hamas and the Palestinian Authority, has left Gaza’s economy in ruins. Residents confront constant challenges, including a staggering 50% unemployment rate, recurrent power blackouts, and polluted tap water. Additionally, Palestinians face severe travel restrictions, making overseas journeys for work, education, or family visits exceedingly challenging.

Past Conflicts: A Glimpse at Resolution Efforts

Historically, the cessation of conflicts has often required diplomatic interventions, with Egypt and the United States playing pivotal roles. While Hamas has maintained an unsteady ceasefire with Israel in the past, trading tranquillity for an easing of the blockade and financial aid from Qatar, a comprehensive resolution seems more elusive than ever. With the absence of significant peace talks and Israel’s continued expansion of settlements, rights groups have raised substantial concerns about the future of peace in the region.